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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

METALLURGY OF IRON" AND STEEL.
reduced.   Since this quantity will be a constant under given conditions, no matter how much ore is afterward needed, it might be
., 90 per cent, of a small addition and only 10 per cent, of a large one.
SEC. Xe.—Reduction of iron ore.—This reduction of ore is a matter of importance in using large proportions of pig-iron. Quite an.amount of oxide is then necessary to satisfy the silicon of the pig, as well as the sand adhering to it, but after the slag is formed there is no increase in its volume, except from the impurities in the ore and the wear of the hearth, so .that as fast as the ore is added
}• .its oxygen is transferred to the metalloids, and its irooi to the bath.
u- ••
TABLE X-D.
Slag and Metal at Different Periods of the Operation. COMPOSITION OF THE SLAG.
	Constituents,	Number of Heat.				
Pounds of	after addition of ore as					
ore added.	shown in first column.					
		7596	7598	7606	7685	Average
None.	SiO,. percent.	50.27	51.96	52.48	52.94	61.90
600	«	49.27	51.10	65.82	61.72	61.98
1000	it	62.77	60.80	65.78	52.28	62.77
1600	11	50.97	61.48	66.66	62.90	62.75
None.	MnO, per cent.	14.91	21.65	16.61	21.84	18.50
500	u  ' r	15.20	19.09	16.81	20.44	' 17.51
1000	«	14.70	17.50	18.89	19.06	10.29
1500	ti	14.22	16.72	12.40	16.86	14.92
None.	FeO, per cent.	81.28	22.59	27.14	28.18	26.08
500	u	80.68	•    26.12	25.11	24.21	20.58
1000	41	26.96	28.26	26.20	20.26	26.92
1500	tt	81.70	26.08	26.96	29.18	28.45
None. 500	FeO and MnO, per cent.	46.14 45.83	44.24 46.21	42.75 40.42	45.02 44.06	44.54 44.04
1000	u	41.66	45.76	40.09	45.82	,48.21
1500	It	45.92	42,75	89.86	45.49	48.83
COMPOSITION OF THE METAL.
Heat No.	Silicon, per cent.				Manganese, per cent.			
	After adding ore, as below.				After adding ore, as below.			
	None.	500 Ibs.	1000 Ibs.	1500 Ibs.	None.	600 Ibs.	1000 Ibs.	1500 Ibs.
7596 7598 7606 7635	.or .04 .04 .18	.01 undet. .05 . .07	.01 undet. .08 .05	.01 .01 .02 .06	.10 .02 .08 .19	.02 .02 .05 .08	.02 .02 .08 .09	.02 .02 trace. •1Q
This may be illustrated by Table X-D, which gives the records of heats, on each of which 1500 pounds of ore were added after melting to decarburize the metal.
SEC. Xf.—Pig-and-ore process.—The amount of ore required for